6-The Quran is not literal

And the Messenger said, “O my Lord, indeed my people have rendered this Quran a thing abandoned.

Quran 25:30

Is the Quran meant to be read literally?

Most Muslims follow a literal and historical translation of the Quran. When a verse was revealed, before or after the hijra, and why it was revealed, circumstances surrounding the prophet’s life. This, when and why, do not come from the Quran, they come from stories in tradition, the hadith books.

A literal interpretation diverts from the deeper meaning, and reduces the Quran to one dimensional words on a page out of history. This contradicts the 1600 plus times that It addresses the rational mind to comprehend Its message.

A literal and historical approach suspends the Quran in time and renders it stagnant. Hence the verse of 25:30.

The traditional interpretation of this verse is a future time,”the day of judgement.” Where the “wrongdoers” are questioned and the prophet is testifying that his people have abandoned “this Quran.” Thus, abandoning Its message and guidance.

The root word used in 25:30 is هجر, meaning to cut off from, neglect, abandon and cease in speaking or associating with someone. There are a few implications from this definition (Lane’s Lexicon page 2879).

The first implication: People turn to hadith books for explanations, thus abandoning, cutting off, association with the words of Quran. The prophet’s hadith and his seerah (events of his life) have been indoctrinated and engraved into the hearts and minds of Muslims.

By reading through the lens of hadith, the Quran’s words, Its message, is neglected; such as 6:114 Then is it other than Allah I seek as judge, while He is the one who revealed to you, The Book explained in detail?

  • In other words, do not go to another source, because The Book is explained in detail. If it’s not in Quran, then it’s not part of His message. The prophet would have only followed the Quran, he would not have added details, as suggested by the hadith books.
  • 7:2-3 This is a Book that has been sent down to you, so let there not be any burden in your chest from it, that you may warn with it; and a reminder to the believers. Follow what was sent down to you from your Lord, and do not follow besides Him any supporters. Little do you remember!  Verses 7:203-204 reiterate the same message (explained below)

The second implication: By reading Quran through interpretations from hadith, you are not actually reading Quran; you are reading hadith. And by assigning a historical timeline to the Quran, the timeless and universal message is cut off, abandoned, neglected. Resulting in a Book about a particular people, in a particular time. This explains the internal struggle of the Muslim world to modernize and acclimate to changes in society, an undeniably natural evolution.

Muslims are looking for answers from a Book, which has been frozen in time by a historical narrative and a literal translation. In other words, Muslims today are driving forward, while looking through the rearview mirror, putting everyone on the road in danger. They cannot navigate the road, they will crash. Muslims have cut off, abandoned, the timeless and universal message of the Quran, by literally binding it to the history of a particular people from 1400 years ago.

The dangers of a literal and historical reading:

Combining a historical setting, as in the various wars explained in hadith, with the literal word does not perpetuate guidance, it propagates a dangerous ideology. Here are only a few examples from traditional translations:

Do not to make friendship with Jews and Christians (5:51), fight them until they are subdued and pay the jizya (9:29)

Kill the disbelievers/ polytheists wherever you find them (2:191, 9:5)

Non-believers will go to hell and will drink boiling water (14:17)

Kill, crucify, or cut the hands and feet of the unbelievers, that they be expelled from the land with disgrace and that they shall have a great punishment in the hereafter (5:34, 47:4)

Allah says he will instill terror into the hearts of the unbelievers and has ordered to “smite above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them” (8:12).

Allah says to fight for His cause and if you kill or are killed, you will return to Paradise (9:111), where you can eat, drink, and recline in pavilions and be coupled with beautiful, pure mates that no man or jinn have ever touched (56:67-71)

Women are seen inferior to men, and can be subjected to physical punishment if they are disobedient to their husbands, men have an advantage over women (4:34, 38:44, 66:19, 2:228)

When these same verses are taken out of historical and literal context, and read through an understanding of the root word and allegory, it drastically changes the meaning. I will expand on these verses in future posts, since each word must be examined through it’s root definition. Click here to see how the words nisa and rijal are explained through their root definitions; thus, changing the context of the verses entirely.

The Impact of Allegories, symbols, and metaphors:

Allegories, symbols, and metaphors are figures of speech that use a material object or characters in a story, to represent an abstract, philosophical idea.

Plato brilliantly illustrates the sun and cave (material objects) as symbols of truth and ignorance (abstract ideas) in Book IV of The Republic, Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. This is one of the most important stories about the path of enlightenment, and echos the verses in Quran; from darkness to light 2:257, 5:15, 6:122. /the-allegory-of-the-cave

In The Allegory of the Chariot, from The Phaedrus, Plato explains the three parts of the soul (reason, appetite, spirit) using a chariot rider and horses as symbols. The chariot rider (reason/logic) must control the horses (the appetite and spirit) for a balanced ride (a balanced soul). /The allegory of the chariot/

Another example is Aesop’s fable, The Tortoise and the Hare. A timeless story which reflects the wisdom of perseverance. Here animals are used to visualize the virtues of hard work and humility versus boastfulness and arrogance.

And because these stories were written allegorically, their message is as valid today as it was almost 3000 years ago. Allegories engage the mind and bring perception and depth to a story.

Allegory in Quran:

The Quran uses allegories and metaphors, to give abstract ideas, such as truth and justice, a concrete form. Words in Quran, like earth, sky, face, city, paradise, house, etc. are not meant to be taken literally.

The key in Quran, lies with the rationale behind the root word. This is the abstract idea, the conceptual definition, behind the literal word. It gives the literal word a multidimensional, deeper meaning. It endorses a logical process by engaging the cognitive faculties of the mind and critical thinking.

For example: The literal words hear and listen, evolved from the essence of its root word, سمع ; to hearken and listen intentionally to understand the meaning of a person’s speech. In other words; it is the abstract, philosophical definition, which gives the literal word, hear, cognitive depth.

7:203-204 And when you do not bring them a sign (ayat), they say “why have you not obtained it?”, say “I only follow what is revealed to me from my Lord.” This (Quran) is enlightenment form your Lord and guidance and mercy for a people who believe. And when Quran is recited, then listen to it, and pay attention, so that you may receive mercy.

Here Quran is saying to listen with your mind, engage your intellect and reason, to comprehend the meaning, not a literal listen with your ears.

It all goes back to the essence of the root word. Since words evolve over time, an ancient text like the Quran must be read through its root word meaning. This is the only way to ensure a timeless message, because the root will never change.

Quran is talking to the reader through the world of ideas. This world exists in the mind. It is the world of intelligence. This world exists forever, for as long as there is a mind to think.

To conclude:

An allegory is always directional, leading to a moral, a truth, a virtue. It is a valuable literary tool that uses metaphors and symbols to convey a concept, a realization, a perception.

Recognizing allegories and understanding the intrinsic nature of the root word, ensures the Quran’s timeless and universal message. Thereby, transcending the temporal, historical, and cultural boundaries imposed by a literal reading. Resulting in a reading which exalts the literal words on the page to a higher meaning; ascending the mind into the world of ideas, the world of intelligence, knowledge, and wisdom.

See Post 8: Surah Fatiha and Jewish history to understand how history was connected to the Quran.

18 thoughts on “6-The Quran is not literal

  1. Can you direct me to a translation that in you’re opinion is the closest to the true message of the Qur’an please? I currently read Dr. Shabbir Ahmed’s rendition but am starting to find traditional translations in parts of it.. thanks and peace

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I am afraid I have not come across one that is not biased towards the history or hadith. Mohammad Asad at least recognizes the contradiction in some verses, The monotheistic Quran is ok. But again they are all regurgitating the same translations, just different wording. Peace

      Like

      1. That is a shame brother.. can you direct me to the best available translation in you’re opinion please? I currently read Dr. Shabbir Ahmed’s but he has also fallen into the trap most others have in his translation.. thank you and peace

        Liked by 1 person

  2. Peace, I forgot the reason I started to comment. My interpretation of the Qur’an abandoned is from the cyclical nature of what happens. The Torah brought about rules to the children of Israel. These conditions eventually led to the companion book(s) of the Talmud and the Rabbis presiding over Jewish doctrine. Jesus came to confirm what was before and to show the purpose of practicing the rules, not as a technical way of earning points, but more as a way of life and living. To follow the rules AND the spirit of the law. So you had 3 parts.

    1. Torah (Truth with room to stretch and embrace the spirit of the law)
    2. Talmud (With no room and becoming a set of rules that “over write” the law of God”)
    3. The Rabbis, a set of living bodies who have a conflict of interest in living off of the requirements for strict rules ensuring that they will increase in laws instead of reverting to the original scripture.

    With Jesus we had
    1. The Gospel (The truth that Jesus spoke)
    2. Myth of inherited Sin
    3. God’s Salvation through his own Death?

    With Islam we have the same cycle as the Jews.
    1. The Qur’an (Truth)
    2. Hadith (Set of rules with no wiggle room making things more technical instead going deeper into Quranic meaning we go outwards into broad detailed and arbitrary rules that often contradict the Quran and themselves.
    3. The “Scholars” who have a conflict of interest in their livelihood being tied to your lack of understanding.

    All you need is the first one for each religion. The rest are inventions and innovations that will conflict, at some point, from the teachings of God.

    We can see already that we are abandoning the principles set in the Qur’an. The book of David had him praying 3 times a day and Jesus bowed down in prayer after/during the last supper. These practices are “use it or lose it” and it is happening again. We don’t know the prayer times without looking at the clock. We don’t think of charity as a blessings to increase wealth. We don’t see Hajj as a way of connecting to the rest of the world of followers. Fasting is a time to pig out, sleep in and hang out late to some. Some people look forward more to what they will eat on Eid and what outfit they will make or buy.

    To me, if our soul isn’t growing it’s shrinking. These are blessings to increase us in what is good. Humans are horrible judges of what’s good for us. We create things that destroy us, even when our intentions are good. That is the problem. We need guidance and it’s sitting in a book waiting for us to pick it up. Even more convenient it’s in and audiobook, app, website, ebook and forms that I have probably forgotten about. There is no lack of access but we have abandoned its teachings already instead turning to an expert, every once in a while, to clarify a point in the limited knowledge we posses. Should I cross my arms like this or should I wash my hands two or three times?

    5:6 has 4 steps why then do we add so much? We have chosen to follow a different God. Maybe it’s our ego maybe it’s the culture but it’s not God, It’s not following God until you live what is said. Believers hear and obey. It’s so true. Live it then your meaning and understanding will increase. This is like an apprenticeship we have a practical religion that teaches through practice, reason and reflection. Not just theory and conjecture. Body, Mind and Soul must come together.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. This is just my opinion.

    I have contemplated death and allegory. Some verses are allegorical and some aren’t God can guide who He wills to a deeper understanding. In regards to death, I believe the verses are allegorical.

    If God is pure energy and we were in a state of bliss by being nearer to God that wouldn’t be a concept that most people, who are focused on this world and its physical pleasures, may not be able to reason out. So its simplified to show gardens with rivers and beautiful companions that are chaste. Things a physical person would desire. This would be the equivalent perceived level of pleasure but, likely, it would be on a spiritual plane. If we take away our body our physical desires go with it, presumably.

    When I am fasting there are points where I feel very light. Like the mere act of eating food is taking away something from my energy and light. I feel, at times, that I can subsist on nothing and be at a much higher state of peace than this constant eating. Similarly if I am running for a long time I will get a runner’s high. Where the pain fades away and the run becomes something, almost spiritual, these are things that cannot be explained to the average person but need to be experienced. That is what I am hoping for or something better. I don’t know if I will have a body or won’t have a body but I want that spiritual aspect above all else. That connection to God that doesn’t ebb and flow like it does when I get caught up in the world. That sense of peace with a tinge of enlightenment.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. In Post 5, Root Words- I touched on the strong segment vs the weak segment of society. In this case the strong segment has a responsibility to the weaker to help seek justice. Sadly, justice may not be possible in all cases, but the crux is that we must pursue it in this life. This is where social justice and social coherence should be priority verses the status quo belief of leaving the rest for afterlife or judgement day.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. Your posts are very interesting, keep on going.

    Also, according to your interpretation of the Quran, who do you think will attain heaven?

    For example do you think ALL good people who do good acts more than bad will be in heaven?

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you so much. The heaven we know today is a man made place. The heaven in Quran is an ideological concept, one which we strive to achieve. As per the verse, justice is found in the Samaa. This means we must always strive to achieve Justice. I do not know what will happen to us after death but word is not an actual physical place in Quran.

      Liked by 1 person

      1. For the people in this life who achieve justice and the people in this life who do a great deal of injustice, what will happen to them after they die (afterlife/last day)?
        Thank you

        Liked by 1 person

          1. Correct me if I am wrong, but you believe that the Quran is saying God wants all humans to attain or strive for justice in this life? I agree with this.

            Does the Quran not talk about how people will be placed in heaven or hell?

            Thank you

            Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s